2010年10月27日 星期三

英文文法-假設語氣

假設語氣(the subjunctive mood)是一種表示假設狀態的句型,由if引導的副詞子句與主要子句構成。依時態的不同形成下列四種基本句型以及一種特殊句型:
  1. 純條件的假設語氣-用現在式
  2. If + S + V(現在式) + …, S + will/may/can/should/shall/must/ought to + VR + …. 例:If Jane comes to my birthday party, I will be on the cloud nine. (如果珍來我的生日派對,我會高興的九霄雲外。)
  3. 與現在事實相反的假設語氣-用過去式
  4. If + S + V(過去式) + …, S + would/could/should/might/ought to + VR + …. 例:If Jane came to my birthday party, I would be on the cloud nineBut she is not here. (如果珍現在有來我的生日派對,我會高興的九霄雲外。) 但她現在不在這裡
  5. 與過去事實相反的假設語氣-用過去完成式
  6. If + S + had + P.P. + …, S + would/could/should/might/ought to + have + P.P. + …. 例:If Jane had come to my birthday party, I would have been on the cloud nineBut she was not here. (如果珍當時有來我的生日派對,我會高興的九霄雲外。) 但她當時不在這裡
  7. 與未來狀況相反的假設語氣-由if子句用助動詞should(譯作:「萬一」),主要子句則用現在式或過去式助動詞
  8. 【可能性低】If + S + should + VR + …, S + would/could/should/might/ought to + VR + …. 【可能性高】If + S + should + VR + …, S + will/can/shall/may + VR + …. 例:If Jane should come to my birthday party, I would/will be on the cloud nine. (萬一珍有來我的生日派對,我會高興的九霄雲外。)
  9. 表示與永恆不變的真理相反的假設語氣
  10. If + S + were to + VR + …, S + would/could/should/might/ought to + VR + …. 例:If I were to be qualified for National Taiwan University, my mother would be on the cloud nine. (要是我考上台大,我媽會高興的九霄雲外。) ↑我知道這不可能啦,所以不要噓我了 =..=
只要秉持住「退一步海闊天空」的原則,基本上假設語氣的法則大致都能理解

 if的省略
假設語氣的if子句中,若有過去完成式助動詞had、或表示「萬一」的助動詞should、或是用於現在假設語氣的be動詞were出現時,可以將這些詞類置於主詞前,並將if省略
ㄐㄩˇ個例句就懂了啦!
  1. had
  2. If he had done it, he would have felt sorry. = Had he done it, he would have felt sorry. (如果他當時做了這件事,他會後悔的。)
  3. should
  4. If it should rain tomorrow, I would stay (at) home. = Should it rain tomorrow, I would stay (at) home. (萬一明天下雨,我會待在家。) 我在家當陽光宅男,嗯… 整個就是超級陽光的! 至於在家當陽光宅男的stay home與stay at home的區別: stay為不及物動詞,而home可做為「地方副詞」或「名詞」 (a) home做地方副詞時:stay這個不及物動詞剛好與之形成「S + Vi. + S.C.」的句型,home恰好做為主詞補語 (b) home做名詞時:stay這個不及物動詞因為有at這個介係詞當橋樑,可連接受詞home,且剛好形成「S + Vi. + prep. + O.」的句型
  5. were
  6. If he were lazy, he might fail. = Were he lazy, he might fail. (如果他怠惰,他就有可能失敗。)

》》》 時態不一致
也就是if子句與過去事實相反,用完成式;主要子句與現在事實相反,則用過去式。
If + S + had + P.P. + …, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + VR + … + (now/today) + .
也是ㄐㄩˇ個例句就懂了啦!
例:If I had started saving money then, I would be able to buy a car (now).
(如果當時我開始存錢,我現在就能買車了。)

解析:If I had started saving money thenwould be able to buy a car (now).
(↑過去事實相反因此用過去完成式;↑現在事實相反,因此用過去式)

》》》 同等於if的連接詞
if = in case (that)、on condition that、provided/providing (that);so long as(只要)、as long as(只要),此類連接詞通常只用在表純條件的假設語氣中。也就是說,其引導的子句均為現在式。
舉一些例句驗證:
例:If it is, we will start to do it.
(如果天氣好,我們就開始著手做這件事情。)

例:In case he comes, let me know.
= In case he should come, let me know.
(如果他來了,讓我知道一下。)

例:I will take the trip with you on condition that you bear the expenses.
(如果你承擔費用,我就與你同行。)

例:I will pardon him provided/providing (that) he acknowledges his mistakes.
(如果他認錯,我就原諒他。)

例:Any book will do as long as it is interesting.
(只要書有趣,哪本都可以。)


》》》 but for + N 若非/要不是…
此類句型僅限於與現在或過去事實相反的假設語氣。
  1. 與現在事實相反:若非…就…
  2. If it were not + that + S + V(用現在式) + …, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + VR + …. = Were it not + that + S + V(用現在式) + …, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + VR + …. = If it were not for + N, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + VR + …. = Were it for + N, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + VR + …. = But for + N, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + VR + …. = Without + N, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + VR + …. 例:If it were not that he works hard, I wouldn't like him. = Were it not that he works hard, I wouldn't like him. = If it were not for his hard work, I wouldn't like him. = Were it not for his hard work, I wouldn't like him. = But for his hard work, I wouldn't like him. = Without his hard work, I wouldn't like him.
  3. 與過去事實相反:若非當時…就…
  4. If it had not been + that + S + V(用過去式) + …, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + have + P.P. …. = Had it not been + that + S + V(用過去式) + …, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + have + P.P. + …. = If it had not been for + N, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + have + P.P. + …. = Had it not been for + N, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + have + P.P. + …. = But for + N, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + have + P.P. + …. = Without + N, S + would/could/might/should/ought to + have + P.P. + …. 例:If it had not been that he lent me the money, I couldn't have bought the book. = Had it not been that he lent me the money, I couldn't have bought the book. = If it had not been for the money (which) he lent me, I couldn't have bought the book. = Had it not been for the money (which) he lent me, I couldn't have bought the book. = But for the money (which) he lent me, I couldn't have bought the book. = Without the money (which) he lent me, I couldn't have bought the book.
※因為這類句型綜合前面的文法,故較深難。若不懂則使用But for + N或Without + N比較保險。
好險有藍山不好笑,我知道 =..=


》》》 lest…(should) + VR +… 以免/唯恐…
lest為副詞連接詞,引導副詞子句。在該子句中,助動詞一律用should。而should常常予以省略,故該子句中的動詞必為原形動詞。
lest + … + (should) + VR …
= for fear that + S + may + VR【表示現在或未來的狀況】
= for fear that + S + might + VR【表示過去的狀況】
= for fear of + V-ing

例:You must study hard lest you (should) fail the exam.
= You must study hard for fear that you may fail the exam.
= You must study hard for fear of failing the exam.
(你必須用功讀書,以免考試不及格。)

例:He did it carefully lest he (should) make the same mistake again.
= He did it carefully for fear that he might make the same mistake again.
= He did it carefully for fear of making the same mistake again.
(他很僅慎地做這件事,唯恐再次犯同樣的錯誤。)


》》》 as if…= as though… 彷彿/好像…
as though或as if均為副詞連接詞,引導副詞子句,使用時有三種時態:
  1. 表示極大的可能  動詞使用一般時態
  2. 例:It looks as if/as though it is going to rain. (看起來好像要下雨了。)
  3. 表與現在事實相反  動詞使用過去式
  4. 例:Mr. Wang loves me as if/as though I were his own child. (王先生愛我就像我是她的孩子一樣。)
  5. 表與過去事實相反  動詞使用過去完成式
  6. 例:He looked as if/as though nothing had happened. (他看起來就好像什麼事也沒發生過一樣。)
※as if或as though之後亦可接不定詞片語,表示即將發生的狀況。
例:She opened her lips as if/as though she was going to speak.
(她張開雙唇好像有話要說。)


》》》 What if…should…? 要是……的話會怎樣/要怎麼辦?
(※本概念於 95 年大學入學指定科目考試有考過)
本句型乃表示對未來狀況的存疑的假設語氣。if子句多半都會置入助動詞should。
例:What if he should come?
= What might happen if he should come?
= What could I/we do if he should come?
(萬一/要是他來了,會怎麼樣/怎麼辦?)

例:What if it should rain?
= What might happen if it should rain?
= What could I/we do if it should rain?
(萬一/要是下雨了,會怎麼樣/怎麼辦?)

*what if之後亦可用現在式,故上列例句亦可改寫如下:
What if he comes?
= What shall we do if he comes?

What if it rains?
= What may happen if it rains?


》》》 It is time/high time/about time + (that) + S + V-ed + ….  該是……的時候了
*由於that子句的動作「尚未發生」,與現在事實相反。故使用此句型時,that子句的動詞必須為過去式。
例:It is time (that) he went to bed.
= It is high time (that) he went to bed.
= It is about time (that) he went to bed.
(該是他上床睡覺的時間了。)

*上列句構亦可改為不定詞形態:
例:It is time (that) he went to bed.
= It is time for hime to go to bed.
= It is high time for hime to go to bed.
= It is about time for hime to go to bed.
(該是他上床睡覺的時間了。)

因此歸納出以下句型:
It is time + (that) + S + V-ed + ….
= It is high time + (that) + S + V-ed + ….
= It is about time + (that) + S + V-ed + ….
= It is time + for sb. + to + VR + ….
= It is high time + for sb. + to + VR + ….
= It is about time + for sb. + to + VR + ….


》》》 If only + 假設語氣 + ….  但願/要是……就好了
本句型只用於與現在事實或過去事實相反的假設語氣中。換言之,本句型的時態只能用過去式或過去完成式。
ㄐㄩˇ個例句就懂了啦!
例:If only he were here.
= I wish he were here.
(要是他現在在這理就好了。)

例:If only I had known it earlier.
= I wish I had known it earlier.
(要是我早點知道這件事就好了。)


》》》 wish的用法
  1. wish之後接that子句時,一定要使用假設語氣。若與現在事實相反,要用過去式;若與過去事實相反,則要用過去完成式。換句話說,that子句中的時態絕無現在式。
  2. 例:wish that he is here.【錯誤】  I wish that he were here.【正確】 = It's too bad that he is not here. (我真希望他現在就在這裡。--但遺憾的是,他現在不在這裡。)
  3. I wish (that) + …. 真希望……就好了
  4. 句型:I wish + (that) + …. = I would rather + (that) + …. = Would that + ….【文言】 例:I wish (that) I had studied harder when young. = I would rather (that) I had studied harder when young. = Would that I had studied harder when young.【文言】 (真希望我當時能更用功就好了。) 這也是看到指考成績後的心聲啊…
但為了避免錯誤,通常以wish to + VR的用法最為保險。

》》》 hope的用法
hope之後接that子句時,使用一般時態,表示極大的可能性。即表示現在的狀況時用現在式,表示未來狀況用未來式;表示完成的狀況時用完成式,表示進行的狀況用進行式。
  1. 表示現在狀況:
  2. 例:I hope (that) he is safe and sound. (我希望他安然無恙。)  safe and sound (phr.) 安然無恙地 sound (a.) 健全的、 (Vi.) 聽起來、 (n.) 聲音,這裡做形容詞(翻譯做:健全的)
  3. 表示未來狀況:
  4. 例:I hope he will be back (我希望他會回來。)
  5. 表示進行狀況:
  6. 例:I hope they are having a good time. (我希望他們正玩得愉快。) 複習:表示「做…愉快」的句型:have fun/pleasure/a good time/a great time + 用法1 (in) + V-ing 或 用法2 with + N
  7. 表示完成狀況:
  8. 例:I hope they have finished the work. (我希望他們已經把工作做好了。)
複習:【國中文法】hope為半使役動詞,其後以接不定詞to + VR或原形動詞做為受詞

》》》 I hope與祈使句(命令句)的關係
I hope接that子句時,子句中可使用助動詞may,形成祈使句。此時將I hope that刪除,將may置於原that子句的主詞之前,動詞仍用原形動詞,原句點改為驚嘆號。
例:I hope (that) he may live long.
= May he live long!
(願他長命百歲!)

例:I hope (that) you may pass the exam.
= May you pass the exam!
(願你通過考試!)

    注意事項
  1. 以God為主詞時,可以省略may。
  2. 例:I hope God may bless you.【老外不常用】 = May God bless you!【老外常用】 = God bless you!【老外最常用】 (上帝保佑你!)
  3. 以「國家」或「君主萬歲」時,可採倒裝句構。
  4. 例:I hope the king may live long.【老外不常用】 = May the king live long!【老外常用】 = Long live the king!【老外最常用】 (國王萬歲!)

》》》 wish與hope的異同
  1. 相同部分:
  2. Ⅰ. 均可用不定詞做為受詞 例:I wish to travel abroad. = I hope to travel abroad. (我希望能出國旅遊。) Ⅱ. 亦可作不及物動詞,與介係詞for並用,表示「期望獲得」之意,以名詞作為其受詞。 例:I wish for a chance to try it.【常用】 = I hope for a chance to try it.【罕用】 (我希望能有機會嘗試一下。) try it不要想到純喫茶喔 =..=
  3. 不同部分:
  4. 表「祝福」時,只能用wish,之後接兩個名詞或代名詞作為其受詞。 例:I wish you a good time. (祝你們玩得愉快。) 例:I wish my parents longevity. (祝我父母長命百歲。) 注意:longevity為不可數名詞,譯作:長壽(不是香菸喔)、長命百歲 換做hope的部份: 例:hope you a good time.【錯誤】 改成:hope (that) you (may) have a good time.【正確】 (我希望你們玩得愉快。) 例:hope my parents longevity.【錯誤】 改成:hope (that) my parents can live long.【正確】 (我希望父母長命百歲。)

》》》 對過去事物的猜測的三種句型
  1. must have + P.P. + … 一定曾經…
  2. 例:He is learned; he must have received a good education. (他博學多聞,一定受過良好的教育。)
  3. may have + P.P. + … 可能曾經…
  4. 例:He looks tired; he may have stayed up late last night. (他看起來很疲倦,可能昨晚熬夜到很晚。) 雖然指考已經過了,但還是來附息一下“熬夜”的講法: stay up = sit up = burn the midnight oil = pull an all nighter
  5. cannot have + P.P. + … 不可能曾經…
  6. 例:He is honest; he cannot have stolen Mary's money. (他是老實人,不可能偷瑪莉的錢。)
注意:若表猜測的句構為疑問句時,要用「Can…have…?」的句型
例:May he have done it?【錯誤】
改成:Can he have done it?【正確】
(他可能做了這樣的事嗎?)

》》》 比較“didn't need to + VR”與“need not have + P.P.”的不同
“didn't need to + VR”乃表示對過去的事實,即「不必……同時亦沒有如此做」;而“need not have + P.P.”乃表示對過去事實相反的假設語氣,即「不必……但卻這麼做了」(同should not have + P.P.)。
例:As I had enough money, I didn't need to borrow any (money) from him.
(由於錢夠,我當時不必向他借錢。--爾且我也沒借錢。)

例:Since you had enough money, you need not have borrowed money from me, but why did you still borrow some?
(既然你的錢夠用,你原本不必向我借錢,但你為什麼還是借錢呢?)
麗奇阿姨要寫借據囉…!


》》》 意志動詞
意志動詞共有“建議”、“要求”、“命令”、“規定”、“主張”等五大類。其後接that子句作受詞時,that子句中要使用助動詞should。而should往往以予省略,故that子句內動詞必呈現原形狀態。
  1. 表「建議」:suggest、recommend、advise、urge(呼籲)、propose、move(提議)
  2. 表「要求」:ask、desire、demand、require、request、insist(堅持要求)
  3. 表「命令」:order、command
  4. 表「規定」:rule、regulate、stipulate
  5. 表「主張」:advocate、maintain
例:They suggested (that) he (should) come home on time.
(他們建議他準時回家。)

例:Mary desired (that) Peter (should) treat her nicely.
(瑪莉要求彼得好好對待她。)

例:The manager ordered (that) the secretary (should) hand in the proposal by Friday.
(經理令秘書週五前交出企劃案。)

例:The principal ruled (that) no student (should) play truant.
(校長規定學生不准逃學。)
逃學會被老妖怪抓到唷 =..=

注意:若suggest翻譯做(表示為):「暗示」、insist表「堅信」、maintain表「堅決認為」時,不做意志動詞用。換言之,that子句用一般時態即可。
  1. suggest表「暗示」:suggest = imply = hint
  2. 例:His words suggested that he wasn't telling a lie. = His words implied that he wasn't telling a lie. = His words hinted that he wasn't telling a lie. (他的話中暗示他絕不是在說謊。)
  3. insist表「堅信」:insist = be convinced = be sure
  4. 例:He insists that the job isn't so difficult as one may think. = He is convinced that the job isn't so difficult as one may think. = He is sure that the job isn't so difficult as one may think. (他深信這份工作沒有一般人想像的那麼困難。)
  5. maintain表「堅決認為」:maintain = believe
  6. 例:John maintained that he had met the girl before. = John believed that he had met the girl before. (約翰確信他曾見過那女孩。)

》》》 insist on + V-ing 堅持要…
例:He insisted on doing it (in) that way.
(他堅持要這麼做。)

注意:“insist on…”與“persist in…”均以動名詞做為受詞,但意思有別:
  1. insist on… 堅持要……(有固執的涵義)
  2. 例:John insisted on going fishing even though a typhoon was coming. (雖然颱風要來了,約翰堅持要去釣魚。) 我想是被魚掉唄~ 颱風在海邊釣魚或觀浪我記得好像要罰二十五萬? 問陳英櫻老師吧 =..=
  3. persist in… 從事……很執著(有很努力且不輕易放棄的涵義)
  4. 例:Peter persisted in handling the problem all by himself. (彼得很執著於自己來處理這個問題。) 複習一下唄~ 處理:handle = deal with = cope with 嗯… 也許莫名的執著是成功的原動力吧?!

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